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United States. v. Llanez-Garcia
Brief of Amici Curiae National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers in Support of Interested Party-Appellant and Reversal of the District Court Decision.
Argument: The Nixon test does not apply to Rule 17(c) subpoenas to third parties. The District Court sanctioned Ms. Migdal for issuing Rule 17(c) subpoenas to third parties. The Nixon test applies only to subpoenas issued to the prosecution. Rule 17(c) subpoenas by defendants to third-parties are proper where they are 91) reasonable, and (2) not unduly oppressive. The Bowman/Nixon rationale for limiting the scope of Rule 17(c) does not apply to Third-party subpoenas. A less stringent standard than the Nixon test comports with criminal discovery principles. At a minimum, the case law supporting Ms. Migdal’s interpretation confirms that her conduct was not sanctionable.