United States. v. Llanez-Garcia

Brief of Amici Curiae National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers in Support of Interested Party-Appellant and Reversal of the District Court Decision.

Brief filed: 11/27/2012


United States. v. Llanez-Garcia

6th Circuit Court of Appeals; Case No. 12-3585

Prior Decision

Decision below Case No. 1:11-cr-00177 (Hon. John R. Adams), 2011 WL 4073920 (N.D. Ohio, Sept. 13, 2011) & 2012 WL 1571522 (N.D. Ohio, May 3, 2012).


The Nixon test does not apply to Rule 17(c) subpoenas to third parties. The District Court sanctioned Ms. Migdal for issuing Rule 17(c) subpoenas to third parties. The Nixon test applies only to subpoenas issued to the prosecution. Rule 17(c) subpoenas by defendants to third-parties are proper where they are 91) reasonable, and (2) not unduly oppressive. The Bowman/Nixon rationale for limiting the scope of Rule 17(c) does not apply to Third-party subpoenas. A less stringent standard than the Nixon test comports with criminal discovery principles. At a minimum, the case law supporting Ms. Migdal’s interpretation confirms that her conduct was not sanctionable.

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Pierre H. Bergeron, Lauren S. Kuley, Squire Sanders (US) LLP, Cincinnati, OH; Candace C. Crouse, Strauss Troy, LPA, Cincinnati, OH.