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Other Fourth Amendment Resources

The Perpetual Line-Up: Unregulated Police Face Recognition in America, Georgetown Law - Center on Privacy & Technology, October 2016.

Searching and Seizing Computers and Obtaining Electronic Evidence in Criminal Investigations Manual, Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Division, Department of Justice, 2009.

"No Warrant, No Problem: How the Government Can Get Your Digital Data," by Theodoric Meyer and Peter Maass, ProPublica, January 8, 2014.

National Security Letters in Foreign Intelligence Investigations: Legal Background, Congressional Research Service, January 3, 2014.

Senator Edward J. Markey sent letters to wireless carriers regarding law enforcement requests in September 2013. The responses from several wireless carriers are available here.

ABA Criminal Justice, Standards on Law Enforcement Access to Third Party Records, February 2012.

The Electronic Frontier Foundation examined the policies of 18 major Internet companies to assess whether they publicly commit to standing with users when the government seeks access to user data. Electronic Frontier Foundation, When the Gov’t Comes Knocking: Who Has Your Back?, May 31, 2012.

Google Transparency Report
In this report, Google discloses the numbers of user data requests it receives from government agencies and courts.

Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping

Litigation Materials 

Defendant's Motion to Suppress Evidence Obtained or Derived from Surveillance Under the FISA Amendments Act and Motion for Discovery (United States v. Mutorov, U.S. District Court for the District of Colorado).

Congressional Research Service Reports 

Privacy: An Abbreviated Outline of Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping, October 9, 2012.

Privacy: An Overview of Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping, October 9, 2012.

Privacy: An Overview of the Electronic Communications Privacy Act, October 9, 2012.

Privacy: An Abridged Overview of the Electronic Communications Privacy Act, October 9, 2012.

Federal Laws Relating to Cybersecurity: Discussion of Proposed Revisions, November 9, 2012.

Cell Phone Tracking

STINGRAYS: The Most Common Surveillance Tool the Government Won't Tell You About, ACLU of Northern California, June 27, 2014.

Department of Justice, Law Enforcement Telephone Investigations Resource Guide, March 2010.

Comcast Law Enforcement Handbook 2007 

CALEA Compliance Manual MetroPCS 2006 

Nextel’s Guide for Law Enforcement 2003 

Sprint Law Enforcement Manual 2004 

Verizon Law Enforcement Manual 2007 

PEW Internet & American Life Project, Three Quarters of Smartphone Owners Use Location Based Services, May 11, 2012.

Opening Brief of USA, In re: Application of the United States of America for Historic Cell Site Data 

GPS Tracking

House Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, and Homeland Security Hearing on the Geolocation Privacy and Surveillance (GPS) Act, Statement for the Record of Matt Blaze, Professor of Communication and Information Science at University of Pennsylvania.

ACLU Amicus Brief in United States v. Pineda-Moreno Synopsis: Without a warrant, the police attached a GPS tracking device to the underside of defendant’s car, enabling them to follow him continuously over a four-month period.


NACDL's Domestic Drone Information Center: Collects news from leading publications across the nation; features a comprehensive listing of legislative developments; and contains sections devoted to relevant case law, scholarship, upcoming events, and data on drone usage. The Domestic Drone Information Center also aggregates existing material from other websites, making it a launching pad to additional information about domestic drones on the web.

NACDL draft legislation to protect individual privacy against unwarranted governmental intrusion through the use of drones. 

American Civil Liberties Union, Protecting Privacy From Aerial Surveillance: Recommendations for Government Use of Drone Aircraft, December 15, 2011.

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