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Models for Administration of the Pardon Power

Independent Board (6)

  • Alabama*
  • Connecticut
  • Georgia
  • Idaho*
  • South Carolina*
  • Utah

Shared Power (20)

Governor on Board (4)

  • Florida
  • Minnesota 
  • Nebraska  
  • Nevada

Gatekeeper Board (9)

  • Arizona 
  • Delaware
  • Louisiana
  • Massachusetts ** 
  • New Hampshire
  • Oklahoma
  • Pennsylvania
  • Rhode Island **
  • Texas 

Advisory Board (8)

  • Alaska
  • Arkansas 
  • California ***
  • Kansas
  • Michigan
  • Missouri 
  • Montana
  • Ohio

Consultation Authorized by Law (21)

  • Colorado
  • Hawaii 
  • Illinois 
  • Indiana
  • Iowa 
  • Kentucky 
  • Maine
  • Maryland
  • Mississippi 
  • New Jersey 
  • New Mexico
  • New York 
  • North Carolina
  • North Dakota 
  • South Dakota
  • Tennessee
  • Vermont 
  • Virginia 
  • Washington 
  • West Virginia 
  • Wyoming  

No Formal Advisory Process (5)

  • District of Columbia
  • Federal System
  • Maine
  • Oregon
  • Wisconsin 

Notes

* In Alabama and South Carolina the governor remains responsible for clemency in capital cases, and in Idaho the governor must approve the board’s decision to pardon certain serious crimes.

**In Rhode Island, the senate must advise and consent to every pardon. In Massachusetts the Executive Council must approve.

*** In California, the governor is required to consult with the parole board and seek approval of the state supreme court in recidivist cases only.

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