DDIC Bill Map

As the proliferation of domestic drones increases, states across the nation are responding. While law enforcement and other governmental agencies are eager to get their hands on this eye-in-the-sky technology, there are currently almost no safeguards in place to protect citizens’ civil liberties. Government bodies throughout the country are working to change that and at the moment, legislation has been introduced at the federal level, in 39 states, and in numerous municipalities. These bill address and develop regulations and restrictions on the usage of domestic drones in relation to: Privacy warrants for surveillance and evidence gathering, data retention, weaponization, accountability.

Below is a list of the legislation that NACDL’s Domestic Drone Information Center is tracking. If you are aware of additional legislation, policy, or resolutions relating to domestic drone usage, please contact us at drones@nacdl.org. 

Alabama

Updated: 1/14/2014 - Print the Alabama entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this state.

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Active Legislation

NACDL has not identified any pending legislation for this state.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

SB 317 - This bill would prohibit any government agency from using a drone to gather evidence or other information with certain exceptions for certain risks of terrorist attack and other specified law enforcement purposes. This bill would provide that any evidence gathered by a drone in violation of this act is inadmissible in any criminal prosecution. The bill also authorizes an aggrieved party to initiate a civil action against a law enforcement agency that violates this act. (Status: Expired due to legislative session ending)  

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Alaska

Updated: 3/5/2014 - Print the Alaska entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this state.

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Active Legislation

HCR 15 Relating to the continuation of the Task Force on Unmanned Aircraft Systems.

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HB 209 An Act relating to the use, possession, and operation of unmanned aerial vehicles; and prohibiting the use of evidence obtained by the use of unmanned aerial vehicles without a warrant.

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HB 159 - An Act relating to the admissibility of evidence acquired through the use of an unmanned aerial vehicle; establishing a crime for certain uses of unmanned aerial vehicles; and restricting the use of unmanned aerial vehicles for collection of information or investigation by peace officers and other government agents.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

NACDL has not identified any previously introduced legislation for this state.

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Arizona

Updated: 2/4/2014 - Print the Arizona entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this state.

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Active Legislation

HB 2538 – Prohibits the warrantless use of unmanned aerial vehicles.

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HB 2334 – Provides that any picture of information that is obtained or collected without a search warrant by an unmanned aerial vehicle is inadmissible in any court in [Arizona].

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Previously Introduced Legislation

HB 2574 – Drone Surveillance; Prohibition; Exceptions. (Status: Expired due to legislative session ending) 

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Arkansas

Updated: 1/10/2014 - Print the Arkansas entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this state.

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Active Legislation

NACDL has not identified any pending legislation for this state.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

HB 1904 - The use of an unmanned aerial vehicle shall fully comply with all Federal Aviation Administration requirements.  Guidelines and acquisition of an unmanned aerial vehicle shall be approved by the local governing body overseeing the local law enforcement agency that is seeking to acquire the unmanned aerial vehicle. (Status: Died in committee; Expired due to legislative session ending)  

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SB 1109 - An act prohibiting the use of an unmanned aerial 8 device that is equipped with a video recording device 9 except when used by a law enforcement agency or 10 authorized emergency personnel; and for other 11 purposes.. (Status: Expired due to legislative session ending)  

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California

Updated: 2/24/2014 - Print the California entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this state.

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Active Legislation

AB 2306 - Legislature intends to enact legislation that would prohibit the use of an unmanned aircraft system to invade a person’s privacy.

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AB 1524 - Identification requirements for unmanned aircraft.

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AB 1327 - This bill would generally prohibit public agencies from using unmanned aircraft systems, or contracting for the use of unmanned aircraft systems, as defined, with certain exceptions applicable to law enforcement agencies and in certain other cases. (Status: Passed Assembly) 

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SB 15 - provides for the integration of civil unmanned aircraft systems into the national airspace system by September 30, 2015.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

NACDL has not identified any previously introduced legislation for this state.

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Colorado

Updated: 1/10/2014 - Print the Colorado entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this state.

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Active Legislation

NACDL has not identified any pending legislation for this state.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

NACDL has not identified any previously introduced legislation for this state.

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Connecticut

Updated: 1/10/2014 - Print the Connecticut entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this state.

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Active Legislation

NACDL has not identified any pending legislation for this state.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

NACDL has not identified any previously introduced legislation for this state.

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Delaware

Updated: 1/10/2014 - Print the Delaware entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this state.

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Active Legislation

NACDL has not identified any pending legislation for this state.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

NACDL has not identified any previously introduced legislation for this state.

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District of Columbia

Updated: 1/10/2014 - Print the District of Columbia entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this jurisdiction.

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Active Legislation

NACDL has not identified any pending legislation for this jurisdiction.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

NACDL has not identified any previously introduced legislation for this jurisdiction.

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Florida

Updated: 1/13/2014 - Print the Florida entry.

Enacted Laws

Freedom from Unwarranted Surveillance Act - Prohibits law enforcement agency from using drone to gather evidence or other information; provides exceptions; authorizes aggrieved party to initiate civil action in order to prevent or remedy violation; prohibits use of evidence obtained or collected in violation of act in criminal prosecution.

View the "Freedom from Unwarranted Surveillance Act" | Return to National Overview 

Active Legislation

NACDL has not identified any pending legislation for this state.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

NACDL has not identified any previously introduced legislation for this state.

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Georgia

Updated: 1/14/2014 - Print the Georgia entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this state.

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Active Legislation

HB 560 – Prohibits use of unmanned aerial vehicles by law enforcement without first obtaining a warrant.

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SB 200 - Defines parameters for the use of unmanned aircraft in surveillance activities by private persons and law enforcement officers; prohibits equipping an unmanned aircraft with weaponry; relating to searches with warrants, defines parameters for the use of unmanned aircraft in searches and seizures.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

NACDL has not identified any previously introduced legislation for this state.

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Hawaii

Updated: 1/27/2014 - Print the Hawaii entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this state.

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Active Legislation

HB 2627 - Establishes an unmanned aerial systems program within the Office of Aerospace Development to develop plans to safely integrate unmanned aerial systems into the national air space.

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HB 1775 - Restricts the use of remotely operated vehicles, including restrictions on the collection of personal information and gathering of evidence by law enforcement agencies.

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SB 2150 -An act relating to searches and seizures; creating the Freedom from Unwarranted Surveillance Act; defining the terms unmanned aircraft system and law enforcement agency; prohibiting a law enforcement agency, person, entity, state or local public agency from using a unmanned aircraft system to gather evidence or other information; providing exceptions; authorizing an aggrieved party to initiate a civil action in order to prevent or remedy a violation of the act; prohibiting a law enforcement agency from using in any court of law in this state evidence obtained or collected in violation of the act; providing an effective date.

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SB 783 - Any use of unmanned aerial vehicles must fully comply with all Federal Aviation Administration requirements and guidelines.  Acquisition of unmanned aerial vehicles must be approved by the department of transportation.  Except as provided in subsection (c), it is unlawful for an agent of the state or any political subdivision thereof, or an individual, association, organization, or corporation, to operate an unmanned aerial vehicle or to disclose or receive information acquired through the operation of an unmanned aerial vehicle.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

NACDL has not identified any previously introduced legislation for this state.

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Idaho

Updated: 1/10/2014 - Print the Idaho entry.

Enacted Laws

 S 1134 – Idaho code, to define a term, to establish provisions relating to restrictions on the use of unmanned aircraft systems, to provide exceptions, to provide for a civil cause of action, to provide for certain damages and to provide that an owner of certain facilities shall not be prohibited from using an unmanned airraft system to inspect such facilities.

View Bill 1134 | Return to National Overview 

Active Legislation

NACDL has not identified any pending legislation for this state.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

 S 1051 and S 1067 – Bills providing guidelines for drone usage, prohibitions, and exceptions. (Status: Expired due to legislative session ending)  

View Bill S 1051| View Bill S 1067 | Return to National Overview 

Illinois

Updated: 2/19/2014 - Print the Illinois entry.

Enacted Laws

SB 1587 - Creates the Freedom from Drone Surveillance Act. Provides that a law enforcement agency may not use a drone to gather information. Permits the use of a drone by a law enforcement agency under special circumstances.(Enacted as Public Act 098-0569)  

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Active Legislation

SB 2937 - Provides that except as provided in the Act, a law enforcement agency may not acquire information from or direct the acquisition of information through the use of a drone owned by a private third party.

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HR 141 - Urges the Illinois congressional delegation to eliminate the threat of drones being used to conduct warrantless searches of U.S. citizens by supporting passage of the Preserving Freedom from Unwarranted Surveillance Act (S. 3287). Urges U.S. Attorney General Holder to publicly release the legal memoranda supporting the use of drone strikes against American citizens on U.S. soil.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

NACDL has not identified any previously introduced legislation for this state.

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Indiana

Updated: 1/15/2014 - Print the Indiana entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this state.

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Active Legislation

SB 336 - Requires the development and administration of a program to license persons who operate unmanned aerial systems. Provides that a person who operates an unmanned aerial system without a license commits a Class C infraction.

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HB 1009 - Prohibits the use of unmanned aerial vehicles and tracking devices to conduct warrantless searches, with certain exceptions.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

SB 20 - Provides that a person who knowingly or intentionally uses an unmanned aerial vehicle to monitor a person, property, or thing without the written consent of the subject of the monitoring commits a Class D felony. Provides that images or communications obtained through the use of an unmanned aerial vehicle are not admissible as evidence. Provides that a person who possesses an image or communications obtained through the use of an unmanned aerial vehicle commits a Class A misdemeanor. (Status: Expired due to legislative session ending)  

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Iowa

Updated: 2/28/2014 - Print the Iowa entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this state.

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Active Legislation

SF 2314 - Relating to the regulation of unmanned aerial vehicles, and providing penalties.

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HF 2289 - Relating to the regulation of unmanned aerial vehicles, and providing penalties.

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SSB 3145 - Relating to the regulation of unmanned aerial vehicles, and providing penalties.

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SF 2157 - Regulating the use of drones and unmanned aircraft, and providing penalties.

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HF 410 & SF 276 - This bill relates to the use of an unmanned aircraft system, also known as a drone, by a state or local law enforcement agency. The bill prohibits a state or local law enforcement agency from using a drone prior to July 1, 2015. The bill does permit the use of a drone by a state or local law enforcement agency prior to July 1, 2015, under special circumstances. (Status: Passed, Awaiting Governor's signature)  

View Bill HF 410 | View Bill SF 276 | Return to National Overview 

HF 427 - This bill relates to the use of drones. Under the bill, a law enforcement agency shall not use a drone to gather evidence or other information. The bill provides that a drone may be used by a law enforcement agency under special circumstances.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

NACDL has not identified any previously introduced legislation for this state.

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Kansas

Updated: 2/19/2014 - Print the Kansas entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this state.

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Active Legislation

HB 2683 – Regulating the use of drones in this state.

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HB 2394 – Prohibits the use of drones by law enforcement.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

NACDL has not identified any previously introduced legislation for this state.

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Kentucky

Updated: 2/19/2014 - Print the Kentucky entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this state.

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Active Legislation

HB 342 - Prohibits a law enforcement agency from using a drone to gather evidence or other information; provides exceptions; prohibits use of evidence obtained in violation.

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HB 454 - Create a new section of KRS Chapter 500 to define "drone" and "law enforcement agency"; prohibit a law enforcement agency from using a drone to gather evidence or other information; provide exceptions; authorize an aggrieved party to initiate a civil action in order to prevent or remedy a violation of the Act; prohibit use of evidence obtained in violation of the provisions; provide that the Act may be cited as the"Citizens' Freedom from Unwarranted Surveillance Act".

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HB 11 - Defines "drone," "law enforcement agency," and "prohibited agency"; prohibit a law enforcement agency from using a drone to gather evidence or other information; provide exceptions; prohibit use of evidence obtained in violation.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

NACDL has not identified any previously introduced legislation for this state.

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Louisiana

Updated: 3/5/2014 - Print the Louisiana entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this state.

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Active Legislation

SB 330 Creates the crime of illegal use of unmanned aircraft to capture images.

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SB 356 Prohibits ‘drones’ from flying over chemical plants or water facilities.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

NACDL has not identified any previously introduced legislation for this state.

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Maine

Updated: 1/10/2014 - Print the Maine entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this state.

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Active Legislation

NACDL has not identified any pending legislation for this state.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

LD 236 - This bill regulates unmanned aerial vehicles, including their acquisition and lawful operation by law enforcement agencies in collecting, disclosing and receiving information and the retention of information collected. For the permitted operation of an unmanned aerial vehicle, the bill requires the consent of the subject person, a warrant or court order, an emergency situation that threatens life or serious bodily injury or an emergency enforcement situation that threatens national security. (Status: Passed, VETOED by Governor)  

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Maryland

Updated: 2/19/2014 - Print the Maryland entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this state.

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Active Legislation

HB 785 - Prohibiting a law enforcement agency from using a drone to gather evidence or other information without a warrant except under specified circumstances; authorizing an aggrieved party to initiate a specified civil action against a law enforcement agency; establishing that evidence obtained or collected in violation of the Act is not admissible as evidence in a criminal prosecution in a court of law in the State; etc.

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SB 926 - Requiring the use of a drone by an agent of the State or a political subdivision of the State to fully comply with specified requirements and guidelines; prohibiting an agent of the State or a political subdivision of the State from operating a drone for the purpose of receiving or disclosing information acquired through the operation of a drone except in specified circumstances; providing exceptions to the prohibition against the use of specified drones and the acquisition and disclosure of specified information; etc.

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HB 847 - Requiring the use of a drone by an agent of the State or a political subdivision of the State to fully comply with specified requirements and guidelines; prohibiting an agent of the State or a political subdivision of the State from operating a drone for the purpose of receiving or disclosing information acquired through the operation of a drone except in specified circumstances; providing exceptions to the prohibition against the use of specified drones and the acquisition and disclosure of specified information; etc.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

HB 1233 - Prohibiting a law enforcement agency from using a drone to gather evidence or other information without a warrant, except under specified circumstances; authorizing an aggrieved party to initiate a specified civil action against a law enforcement agency; establishing that evidence obtained or collected in violation of the Act is not admissible as evidence in a criminal prosecution in a court of law in the State; and defining terms. (Status: Expired due to legislative session ending)  

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Massachusetts

Updated: 1/14/2014 - Print the Massachusetts entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this state.

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Active Legislation

HB 1357 & SB 1664 - Any use of an unmanned aerial vehicle shall fully comply with all Federal Aviation Administration requirements and guidelines. Unmanned aerial vehicles may not be equipped with weapons. The acquisition, purchase, or procurement of unmanned aerial vehicles shall be authorized, in the case of a unit of state or county government, by the Secretary of Public Safety, or, in the case of a municipality, by the city council or other governing body, subject to approval by the Secretary of Public Safety.

View HB 1357 | View SB 1664 | Return to National Overview 

Previously Introduced Legislation

NACDL has not identified any previously introduced legislation for this state.

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Michigan

Updated: 1/14/2014 - Print the Michigan entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this state.

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Active Legislation

HB 4455 - To authorize and regulate the use of unmanned aerial vehicles; to provide the powers and duties of certain state agencies and departments and local units of government; to authorize the use of unmanned aerial vehicles under certain circumstances; to prohibit the operation of unmanned aerial vehicles under certain circumstances; to prohibit the disclosure of information collected by unmanned aerial vehicles under certain circumstances; and to provide penalties and sanctions.

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HB 4456 - Provides sentencing guidelines for unlawful use of drones and for improperly disclosing data obtained through drone operation.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

NACDL has not identified any previously introduced legislation for this state.

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Minnesota

Updated: 3/20/2014 - Print the Minnesota entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this state.

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Active Legislation

SF 2687 - Regulates the use of unmanned aerial vehicles by law enforcement.

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SF 2037 - Prohibits law enforcement agencies from using unmanned aerial cameras to gather evidence in certain circumstances.

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HF 612 - Law enforcement agencies prohibited from using drones to gather evidence, and civil actions authorized.

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HF 1076 - Law enforcement agency prohibited from using drones to gather evidence or other information, use of drones prohibited by persons, and criminal penalties provided.

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HF 1620 - Law enforcement agency prohibited from using drones to gather evidence or other information, drone use by persons prohibited, and federal agency drone use within the boundaries Minnesota prohibited.

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SF 485 - Relating to public safety; prohibiting law enforcement agencies from using drones to gather evidence in certain circumstances; specifying exceptions; authorizing civil actions.

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SF 1506 - Relating to public safety; prohibiting law enforcement agencies from using drones to gather evidence or other information, exceptions; prohibiting use of drones by persons; prohibiting the use of drones by a federal agency within the boundaries of the state; imposing penalties; authorizing civil actions.

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HF 990 – Regulates the use of drones by persons and agencies, provides criminal penalties for misuse, gives law enforcement the ability to use drones under specific circumstances.

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HF 1994 – Law enforcement agencies prohibited from using unmanned aerial cameras to gather evidence on individuals without a warrant or imminent threat.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

NACDL has not identified any previously introduced legislation for this state.

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Mississippi

Updated: 1/10/2014 - Print the Mississippi entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this state.

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Active Legislation

NACDL has not identified any pending legislation for this state.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

NACDL has not identified any previously introduced legislation for this state.

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Missouri

Updated: 1/14/2014 - Print the Missouri entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this state.

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Active Legislation

HB 1204 – Prohibits the use of unmanned aircrafts to gather evidence or other information with specified exceptions.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

HB 46 – Prohibits the use of a drone or other unmanned aircraft to gather evidence or other information with specified exceptions. (Status: Expired due to legislative session ending.) 

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Montana

Updated: 1/14/2014 - Print the Montana entry.

Enacted Laws

SB 196 - limiting the use of unmanned aerial vehicles by law enforcement and private users and prohibiting the use of unlawfully obtained information as evidence in court.

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Active Legislation

NACDL has not identified any pending legislation for this state.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

LC 898 – Limiting the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles; and prohibiting any governmental entity within the state of Montana owning or utilizing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles with antipersonnel devices. (Status: Expired due to legislative session ending)  

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SB 150 – Limiting the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles; and prohibiting any governmental entity within the state of Montana owning or utilizing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles with antipersonnel devices. (Status: Expired due to legislative session ending; Died in Committee)  

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Nebraska

Updated: 1/14/2014 - Print the Nebraska entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this state.

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Active Legislation

LB 412 – Prohibits the use of drone aircraft by law enforcement except under certain circumstances.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

NACDL has not identified any previously introduced legislation for this state.

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Nevada

Updated: 1/13/2014 - Print the Nevada entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this state.

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Active Legislation

NACDL has not identified any pending legislation for this state.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

NACDL has not identified any previously introduced legislation for this state.

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New Hampshire

Updated: 1/14/2014 - Print the New Hampshire entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this state.

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Active Legislation

HB 619 - Prohibits images of a person’s residence to be taken from the air by a satellite, drone, or any device not supported by the ground.

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HB 1361 - Prohibits the use of drones to obtain evidence unless authorized in certain circumstances.

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HB 1566 - Provides that devices that enhance or extend human senses (including drones) shall not be used a government official without obtaining a warrant.

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HB 1620 - Regulates the use of drones by government agencies and individuals. Establishes criminal penalties and civil remedies for violations of the law.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

NACDL has not identified any pending legislation for this state.

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New Jersey

Updated: 1/23/2014 - Print the New Jersey entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this state.

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Active Legislation

NACDL has not identified any active legislation for this state.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

S 2702 - Sets forth certain standards to be followed by law enforcement agencies and fire departments when utilizing drones. (Status: Passed both houses; Vetoed by Governor)  

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A 4073 - Sets forth certain standards to be followed by law enforcement agencies and fire departments when utilizing drones. (Status: Passed, Supplanted by S 2702)  

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A 4381 - Establishes certain warrant requirements for law enforcement agencies that utilize drones (Status: Expired due to legislative session ending)  

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A 3157 - Requires that police obtain warrant to conduct aerial surveillance utilizing drones. (Status: Expired due to legislative session ending)  

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A 3929 - Prohibits the use of drones by law enforcement for surveillance purposes. (Status: Expired due to legislative session ending)  

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A 4073 - Sets forth certain standards to be followed by law enforcement agencies and fire departments when utilizing drones. (Status: Expired due to legislative session ending)  

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A 4091 - Prohibits the use of drones by law enforcement entities. (Status: Expired due to legislative session ending)  

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New Mexico

Updated: 1/10/2014 - Print the New Mexico entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this state.

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Active Legislation

NACDL has not identified any pending legislation for this state.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

SB 556 – Prohibits the surveillance by use of drone aircraft without a warrant. (Status: Expired due to legislative session ending)  

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New York

Updated: 1/27/2014 - Print the New York entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this state.

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Active Legislation

AB 6370 – Imposes limitations on the use of drones within the state of New York.

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AB 6244 – no person or entity acting under color of the authority of any state, county, municipal or local governmental entity or authority, or acting on behalf of any such entity or authority, shall use, operate, engage or employ an unmanned aerial vehicle as defined in this section to gather evidence or other information related to a criminal investigation, criminal case, or conduct in violation of regulation except when authorized under a warrant issued by a court of record or justified by lawful exception to the warrant requirement.

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AB 6541 - Amends the civil rights law, in relation to the use of unmanned aerial vehicles.

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AB 8091 - Amends the penal law, in relation to conducting unlawful surveillance by use of a drone.

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SB 6412 - Prohibits the use of unmanned aerial vehicles in criminal investigations to gather evidence without a warrant.

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SB 4537 - Amends the civil rights law, in relation  to  imposing  limitations on the use of drones within the state.

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SB 4839 - An act to amend the civil rights law, in relation to the use of unmanned aerial vehicles.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

NACDL has not identified any previously introduced legislation for this state.

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North Carolina

Updated: 1/14/2014 - Print the North Carolina entry.

Enacted Laws

S 402 – Regulates the use of drones to conduct searches.

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Active Legislation

NACDL has not identified any active legislation for this state.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

H 312 – Until July 1, 2015, no State or local governmental entity or officer may procure or operate an unmanned aircraft system or disclose personal information about any person acquired through the operation of an unmanned aircraft system unless the State CIO approves an exception specifically granting disclosure, use, or purchase. Any exceptions to the prohibition in this subsection shall be reported immediately to the Joint Legislative Oversight Committee on Information Technology and the Fiscal Research Division. The following definitions apply in this section: (1) "Unmanned aircraft" means an aircraft that is operated without the possibility of human intervention from within or on the aircraft. (2) "Unmanned aircraft system" means an unmanned aircraft and associated elements, including communication links and components that control the unmanned aircraft that are required for the pilot in command to operate safely and efficiently in the national airspace system. (Status: Expired due to legislative session ending) 

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North Dakota

Updated: 1/14/2014 - Print the North Dakota entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this state.

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Active Legislation

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this state.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

HB 1373 – To provide for limitations on the use of unmanned aircraft for surveillance. (Status: Passed House, defeated in Senate)  

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Ohio

Updated: 1/14/2014 - Print the Ohio entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this state.

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Active Legislation

HB 207 - Limits the use of drones by law enforcement agencies and prohibit the defense of sovereign immunity with regard to a prohibited use of drones.

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HB 364 - Regulates the use of unmanned aerial vehicles.

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SB 189 - Regulates the use of unmanned aerial vehicles.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

NACDL has not identified any previously introduced legislation for this state.

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Oklahoma

Updated: 1/27/2014 - Print the Oklahoma entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this state.

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Active Legislation

SB 2043 - Restricts the use of drones, prohibits law enforcement agencies use of drones to gather certain information, stating certain evidence as nonadmissible.

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HB 1556 - prohibiting operation of an unmanned aircraft system for surveillance; providing exceptions; providing penalties; authorizing civil remedy; prohibiting information acquired through surveillance from being presented; providing exceptions; requiring deletion of data acquired in certain circumstances; excepting certain data.

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HB 1795 - An Act relating to unmanned aerial vehicles and drones; creating the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Drones Act; providing for noncodification; and providing an effective date.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

NACDL has not identified any previously introduced legislation for this state.

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Oregon

Updated: 1/10/2014 - Print the Oregon entry.

Enacted Laws

HB 2710 - Relating to drones; declaring an emergency. Provides that drone may be used by law enforcement agency for purpose of surveillance of person only pursuant to warrant or in emergency circumstances.

View Bill HB 2710 | Return to National Overview 

Active Legislation

NACDL has not identified any pending legislation for this state.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

SB 524 - Provides that drone may be used by law enforcement agency for purpose of surveillance of person only pursuant to warrant or in emergency circumstances. Provides that law enforcement agency may use drone to intercept communications only as provided under laws relating to wiretaps and other interceptions of communications. Requires destruction of images and other information acquired by use of drone within 30 days unless information is needed as evidence in criminal prosecution. (Status: Expired due to legislative session ending)  

View Bill SB 524 | Return to National Overview 

SB 853 - Prohibits public body from operating drone, acquiring information through operation of drone or disclosing information acquired through operation of drone, except as authorized by Act (Status: Expired due to legislative session ending)  

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SB 71 - Imposes restrictions on use of drones by private parties and public entities. Creates various crimes for unauthorized use of drones. Punishes by maximum of 20 years' imprisonment, $375,000 fine, or both. (Status: Expired due to legislative session ending)  

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Pennsylvania

Updated: 4/14/2014 - Print the Pennsylvania entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this state.

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Active Legislation

HB 2158 – Except as provided, no State or local government, department, agency or instrumentality having jurisdiction over criminal law enforcement or regulatory violations shall employ the use of a drone.

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HB 961 – Use of drones by law enforcement requires a warrant.

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SB 875 – Regulating unmanned aircraft in Pennsylvania.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

NACDL has not identified any previously introduced legislation for this state.

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Puerto Rico

Updated: 1/14/2014 - Print the Puerto Rico entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this jurisdiction.

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Active Legislation

NACDL has not identified any active legislation for this jurisdiction.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

NACDL has not identified any previously introduced legislation for this jurisdiction.

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Rhode Island

Updated: 2/19/2014 - Print the Rhode Island entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this state.

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Active Legislation

S 2362 - Provides that unmanned aerial vehicles will not be used to gather information absent a warrant.

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H 7170 - Regulates the use of unmanned aerial vehicles.

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H 5780 - Any use of unmanned aerial vehicles shall fully comply with all federal aviation administration requirements and guidelines.  Unmanned aerial vehicles shall be acquired only after a public hearing and, for any state law enforcement agency, approval by the governor, and for any municipal law enforcement agency, approval by the city or town council overseeing that agency seeking such acquisition.  Unmanned aerial vehicles shall be used only under the direction of the attorney general and in accordance with the procedures contained in this chapter. Unmanned aerial vehicles shall not be equipped with weapons.  Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, it shall be unlawful for any state or municipal law enforcement agency, or any individual or entity on such agency's behalf, to operate an unmanned aerial vehicle, or to disclose or receive information acquired through the operation of an unmanned aerial vehicle.

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S 411 – Prohibits law enforcement from using unmanned aerial vehicles without a warrant.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

NACDL has not identified any pending legislation for this state.

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South Carolina

Updated: 1/27/2014 - Print the South Carolina entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this state.

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Active Legislation

H 3415 - Prohibit the use of drones by a law enforcement agency to gather evidence or other information without a search warrant, to provide exceptions to the prohibition, to allow an aggrieved party to bring a civil action against a law enforcement agency for a violation, and to provide evidence or information obtained in violation of the statute cannot be used in a criminal prosecution. (Status: Passed House)

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H 3514 - Prohibits the operation of a public unmanned aircraft system and the disclosure of personal information acquired through the operation of a public unmanned aircraft system.

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S 395 - Prohibits any state agency, governmental entity, or political subdivision, including any law enforcement agency, to utilize, contract for, or otherwise obtain any services from an unmanned aerial vehicle containing an antipersonnel device, and to provide that no state agency, governmental entity, or political subdivision, including any law enforcement agency, may conduct general surveillance or conduct surveillance of a targeted person or location utilizing an unmanned aerial vehicle or related device without obtaining a search warrant.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

NACDL has not identified any previously introduced legislation for this state.

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South Dakota

Updated: 1/10/2014 - Print the South Dakota entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this state.

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Active Legislation

NACDL has not identified any pending legislation for this state.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

NACDL has not identified any previously introduced legislation for this state.

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Tennessee

Updated: 2/19/2014 - Print the Tennessee entry.

Enacted Laws

SB 796 - Prohibits the use of a drone or other unmanned aircraft to gather evidence or other information with specified exceptions.

View Bill SB 796 | Return to National Overview 

Active Legislation

SB 2438 - Creates a task force to study the use of drones for public and private purposes within this state.

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HB 2391 - Creates a task force to study the use of drones for public and private purposes within this state.

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HB 1952 - Prohibits the use of drones to interfere with private citizens who are lawfully hunting or fishing.

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SB 1777 - Prohibits the use of drones to interfere with private citizens who are lawfully hunting or fishing.

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HB 591 - Prohibits the use of a drone or other unmanned aircraft to gather evidence or other information with specified exceptions.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

NACDL has not identified any previously introduced legislation for this state.

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Texas

Updated: 1/14/2014 - Print the Texas entry.

Enacted Laws

HB 912 – Prohibits drones from taking images of persons or properties without the express consent of the person who owns of lawfully occupies the property, provides exceptions for law enforcement usage; warrant needed, felony must be suspected.

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Active Legislation

NACDL has not identified any pending legislation for this state.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

NACDL has not identified any previously introduced legislation for this state.

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Utah

Updated: 4/3/2014 - Print the Utah entry.

Enacted Laws

SB 167 - Establishes provisions for the appropriate use of unmanned aerial vehicles by government entities.

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Active Legislation

NACDL has not identified any pending legislation for this state.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

NACDL has not identified any previously introduced legislation for this state.

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Vermont

Updated: 1/14/2014 - Print the Vermont entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this state.

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Active Legislation

H 540 – This bill proposes to establish regulations for the use of drones, also known as unmanned aerial vehicles. The bill proposes to permit a law enforcement agency to use a drone only if the agency obtains a warrant or if emergency circumstances exist.

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S 169 – This bill proposes to establish regulations for the use of drones, also known as unmanned aerial vehicles. The bill proposes to permit a law enforcement agency to use a drone only if the agency obtains a warrant or if emergency circumstances exist.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

NACDL has not identified any previously introduced legislation for this state.

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Virgin Islands

Updated: 1/14/2014 - Print the Virgin Islands entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this jurisdiction.

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Active Legislation

NACDL has not identified any pending legislation for this jurisdiction.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

NACDL has not identified any previously introduced legislation for this jurisdiction.

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Virginia

Updated: 1/10/2014 - Print the Virginia entry.

Enacted Laws

Two-Year Moratorium on the use of Drones by State and Local Law Enforcement (HB 2012 and SB 1331) - Places a moratorium on drone usage in the state of Virginia until July 2015, except under specific circumstances.

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Active Legislation

NACDL has not identified any pending legislation for this state.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

HB 1616 - Provides that no state agency or organization having jurisdiction over criminal law enforcement or regulatory violations, including but not limited to the Department of State Police nor any department of law enforcement of any city, county or town, shall procure a public unmanned aircraft system (drone aircraft) without the approval of the General Assembly or the local governing body, respectively. The bill requires a warrant for use of such an aircraft. (Status: Expired due to legislative session ending) 

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SB 954 - Provides that the use of a drone by a private person to monitor and photograph persons lawfully hunting on private property, when the drone is used by a private person without the permission of the landowner, constitutes impeding hunting, a Class 3 misdemeanor. (Status: Expired due to legislative session ending) 

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Washington

Updated: 4/8/2014 - Print the Washington entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this state.

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Active Legislation

HB 2789 – AN ACT Relating to technology-enhanced government surveillance; 2 adding new sections to chapter 9.73 RCW; creating a new section; and 3 prescribing penalties. (Status: Passed, VETOED by Governor)  

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SB 6172 & SB 5782 – Provides clear standards for the lawful use of unmanned aerial vehicles by state and local jurisdictions.

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HB 1771 & SB 5782 – Protects Washington citizens from warrantless surveillance, reducing liability, and establishing clear standards under which agencies may utilize unmanned aerial vehicles.

View Bill HB 1771 | View Bill SB 5782 | Return to National Overview 

Previously Introduced Legislation

NACDL has not identified any previously introduced legislation for this state.

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West Virginia

Updated: 1/14/2014 - Print the West Virginia entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this state.

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Active Legislation

HB 2732 - Prohibits the use of drones; provides exceptions; provides remedies; prohibits the use of evidence; and defines terms.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

HB 2948 - The bill prohibits the use of drones and provides exceptions. The bill provides remedies. The bill prohibits the use of evidence in criminal proceedings. (Status: Expired due to legislative session ending.)  

View Bill HB 2948 | Return to National Overview 

HB 2997 - A bill to amend the Code of West Virginia, 1931, as amended, by adding thereto a new article, designated §1-7-1, §1-7-2, §1-7-3, §1-7-4, §1-7-5, §1-7-6 and §1-7-7, all relating to prohibiting the use of unmanned aircraft; providing exceptions; requiring documentation when an unmanned aircraft is used; providing remedies; prohibiting the use of certain evidence and preservation of collected data; establishing exceptions; and defining terms. (Status: Expired due to legislative session ending.)  

View Bill HB 2997 | Return to National Overview 

Wisconsin

Updated: 4/9/2014 - Print the Wisconsin entry.

Enacted Laws

Wisconsin Act 213 (Senate Bill 196) -AN ACT to amend 114.04; and to create 175.55, 941.292 and 942.10 of the statutes; relating to: restricting the use of drones and providing a penalty.

View Act 213 | Return to National Overview 

Active Legislation

AB 203 -This bill restricts the use of drones. The bill defines a drone as a powered, aerial vehicle that does not carry a human operator, uses aerodynamic vehicle lift, and can fly autonomously or be piloted remotely.
 

Under the bill, no law enforcement agency may use a drone that is equipped with video or audio recording equipment to collect evidence or information in a criminal investigation without first obtaining a search warrant. The bill allows a law enforcement agency to use a drone without a search warrant if it is necessary to do so for certain emergency purposes, including to locate an escaped prisoner, to aid in a search and rescue mission, or to prevent imminent harm to a person or the imminent destruction of evidence. Under the bill, evidence obtained by a drone in violation of the law is not admissible in a criminal proceeding.

Under the bill, a person who sells, possesses, or uses a weaponized drone is guilty of a Class H felony, and may be fined up to $10,000, imprisoned for up to six years, or both. The bill prohibits a person, except a law enforcement officer who has a search warrant or is acting for a permissible emergency purpose, from using a drone that is equipped with video or audio recording equipment to photograph, record, or otherwise observe another individual in a place where the individual has a reasonable expectation of privacy. Anyone who does so is guilty of a Class A misdemeanor, and may be fined up to $10,000, imprisoned for up to nine months, or both.

Because this bill creates a new crime or revises a penalty for an existing crime, the Joint Review Committee on Criminal Penalties may be requested to prepare a report concerning the proposed penalty and the costs or savings that are likely to result if the bill is enacted.

View Bill AB 203 | Return to National Overview 

Previously Introduced Legislation

NACDL has not identified any previously introduced legislation for this state.

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Wyoming

Updated: 2/19/2014 - Print the Wyoming entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this state.

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Active Legislation

HB 105 - Relating to criminal procedure; requiring a warrant for unmanned aerial surveillance; providing for exceptions; prohibiting use of evidence obtained without required warrant; and providing for an effective date.

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Previously Introduced Legislation

HB 242 - Relating to criminal procedure; requiring a warrant for unmanned aerial surveillance; providing for exceptions; prohibiting use of evidence obtained without required warrant; and providing for an effective date. (Status: Died in Committee; Expired due to legislative session ending)  

View the Bill | Return to National Overview 

Federal

Updated: 1/14/2014 - Print the Federal entry.

Enacted Laws

NACDL has not identified any enacted legislation for this jurisdiction.

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Active Legislation

HR 972 - The United States shall not use a drone to gather evidence or other information pertaining to criminal conduct or conduct in violation of a regulation except to the extent authorized in a warrant issued under the procedures described in the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure.

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HR 1242 & S 505 – Prohibits the use of drones to kill citizens of the United States within the United States.

View Bill HR 1242 | View Bill S 505 | Return to National Overview 

HR 1083- To amend the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 to establish prohibitions to prevent the use of an unmanned aircraft system as a weapon while operating in the national airspace system, and for other purposes.

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HR 1262- To amend the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 to provide guidance and limitations regarding the integration of unmanned aircraft systems into United States airspace, and for other purposes.

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S 1639- To amend the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 to provide guidance and limitations regarding the integration of unmanned aircraft systems into United States airspace, and for other purposes.

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S 1016- Preserving Freedom from Unwarranted Surveillance Act of 2013.

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HR 2183- Drones Accountability Act.

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HR 2438-Designating Requirements on Notification of Executive-ordered Strikes Act.

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HR 2868- Drone Aircraft Privacy and Transparency Act

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HR 637- Preserving American Privacy Act

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Previously Introduced Legislation

NACDL has not identified any previously introduced legislation for this jurisdiction.

Return to National Overview 

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