Models for Administration of the Pardon Power

Independent Board (6)

  • Alabama*
  • Connecticut
  • Georgia
  • Idaho*
  • South Carolina*
  • Utah

Shared Power (21)

Governor on Board
  • Florida
  • Minnesota 
  • Nebraska  
  • Nevada
Gatekeeper Board
  • Arizona 
  • Delaware
  • Louisiana
  • Massachusetts 
  • Montana 
  • New Hampshire
  • Oklahoma
  • Pennsylvania
  • Rhode Island
  • Texas 
Advisory Board
  • Alaska
  • Arkansas 
  • Kansas
  • Michigan
  • Missouri 
  • Ohio

Consultation (23)

  • California** 
  • Colorado
  • Hawaii 
  • Illinois 
  • Indiana
  • Iowa 
  • Kentucky 
  • Maine
  • Maryland
  • Mississippi 
  • New Jersey 
  • New Mexico
  • New York 
  • North Carolina
  • North Dakota 
  • Oregon
  • South Dakota
  • Tennessee
  • Vermont 
  • Virginia 
  • Washington 
  • West Virginia 
  • Wisconsin 
  • Wyoming 

Notes

* In Alabama and South Carolina the governor remains responsible for clemency in capital cases, and in Idaho the governor must approve the board’s decision to pardon certain serious crimes.

** In California the governor is required to consult with the parole board, and seek approval of the state supreme court, in recidivist cases only.

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